Assignment 6: Teaching Historical Thinking Skills of Contextualization and Sourcing

An Account of The Red Summer
Adapted from a lesson by SHEG

Directions:
Use this letter and your knowledge of history to answer the questions that follow.

Background information: The events described in the following letter take part during a time referred to as the “Red Summer,” referring to the summer of 1919. It was a time when there was a sharp increase in race riots across the country, in the North as well as the South. This document comes from the archived records of the NAACP, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

Source text:

Monday July 21st, 1919
I was returning to Washington after having been out of town… I arrived at the Union Station at 12 pm, [and] boarded a street car… When I reached… the place of transfer I noticed that things were as quiet as it usually is at that hour of the night. I waited there about 5 minutes for the Brightwood car and when it came I and a Captain boarded it. I walked into the car and soon noticed that I was the only member of my race present except a lady whom I noticed later but not at this time. As I started to get a vacant seat a soldier put his arm across me and said “where are you going n—–?” I said to him that I was going to get a seat, As [sic] I was telling him that I heard some others in the car saying “lynch him”, “kill him”, “Throw him out of the car window” and at that time I was being grabbed from all sides. I forced my way to the rear door and was hit by something as I stepped off, which cut my ear and bruised my head. As the car moved away the conductor fired three shots at me. It was as I got off the car that I noticed the lady on the car, what became of her I do not know.
James E. Scott

Image and interview source: Library of Congress NAACP: A Century in the Fight for Freedom. Williams Jacobs

Other facts related to Mr. Scott’s letter:

1. The so-called “Red Summer” riots took place across 25 cities. This included riots in Illinois, Nebraska, Washington D.C., and Texas.
2. Mr. Scott’s account describes the 5-day Washington Riot, which started on July 19th, 1919. The riots began when reporters published sensationalized (hyped-up) headlines describing attacks on White women by Black men.
3. In response to the headlines, White servicemen began assaulting Black pedestrians
4. This letter was Mr. Scott’s affidavit. This means it was a legal court document signed under oath that testifies to what Mr. Scott witnessed.

Question: Which 2 of the 4 facts above help you figure out whether Mr. Scott’s experience of being involved in a race riot was typical (usual) or atypical (unusual) of Black men in the 1920s?

Explain your reasoning.

Fact # ___ helps to show that Mr. Scott’s experience was either usualor unusual because:

Fact # ___ helps to show that Mr. Scott’s experience was either usual or unusual because:

Question: Which 2 of the 4 facts above help you decide if Mr. Scott is a trustworthy source?

Fact # ___ shows _____________________ because:

Fact # ___ shows _____________________ because:

Indian Removal

Unit Goal:

 

This unit provides a chronological framework for students to envision their current knowledge of westward expansion in a chronological framework, while also introducing additional declarative knowledge of the people, organizations, locations, and specific events that serve as markers for this unit. Students are also presented with primary source material that exhibit conflicting perspectives. Students are asked to incorporate sourcing, contextualization, close reading, and corroboration of primary source materials to demonstrate procedural knowledge and critical thinking skills.

 

Central focus of the the Unit: (I noticed most successful EDTPA examples use essential questions as the central focus)

 

The central focus of this learning segment is to answer the essential question: In what ways can change/progress/growth be both positive and negative?

 

Central focus of the learning segment: (I noticed most successful EDTPA examples use essential questions as the central focus)

 

The central focus of this learning segment is to answer the essential question: Does the United States government’s interaction with indigenous peoples (past and present) reflect an ethical and moral identity synonymous with justice, democracy, and benevolence?

 

Warmup:

 

Considering what we’ve learned about how the US Government has native tribes up to this point in history (1870) What do you think the US Government’s next approach was to their, “Indian Problem”?

 

Direct Instruction:

 

Nez Perce War—–> Wounded Knee

 

Historical Thinking:

 

Chief Joseph’s Surrender and proposal to treat his people as americans

VS Luther Standing Bear’s retelling of negative experiences at an Indian Boarding School

Wrap-Up:

 

Students use this time to ask instructor to assist them in completing the study guide. This is due next class, will be HW if not finished.

 

 

 

 

Chief Joseph’s Assorted Speeches

 

Sourcing:

  • Who wrote this?
  • When was this written?
  • What is the writer’s perspective?

 

Context:

  • What was going on during this time period?
  • What was different about this time period in comparison to 2017?
  • What possible biases might have affected this text?

 

Close reading:

  • What language (words, symbols, colors ETC) does the writer use?

 

Luther Standing Bear On Carlisle School

Sourcing:

 

  • Who wrote this?
  • When was this written?
  • What is the writer’s perspective?

 

Context:

  • What was going on during this time period?
  • What was different about this time period in comparison to 2017?
  • What possible biases might have affected this text?

 

Close reading:

  • What language (words, symbols, colors ETC) does the writer use?

 

Corroborate:

 

  • Do all three sources have the same opinion regarding the west/ people who already lived there?
  • Which piece do you find for informative/ reliable?
  • If you were asked to retrieve another source to further inform youself, what might you use?

 

*Featured image created on Adobe Spark